Difference between revisions of "Timeline Page"

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===15 april (1,948,511 cases)===
 
===15 april (1,948,511 cases)===
* The German Federal Ministry has [https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluss-1744224 agreed with the German States the following]: <Ref> Decision of the Chancellor's telephone switching conference with the heads of government of the federal states on April 15, 2020. [[Decision of the Chancellor's telephone switching conference with the heads of government of the federal states on April 15, 2020|Website of the German Federal Government. Accessed 20 April 2020]]</ref>
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* The German Federal Ministry has agreed with the German States the following: <Ref> Decision of the Chancellor's telephone switching conference with the heads of government of the federal states on April 15, 2020. [https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluss-1744224 Website of the German Federal Government. Accessed 20 April 2020]</ref>
 
** Guiding principle: "to protect all people in Germany as well as possible from the infection"
 
** Guiding principle: "to protect all people in Germany as well as possible from the infection"
 
** The most important measure for the coming time remains to keep your distance.
 
** The most important measure for the coming time remains to keep your distance.
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===29 April (3,054,404 cases)===
 
===29 April (3,054,404 cases)===
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* ECDC publishes "Considerations for infection prevention and control measures on public transport in the context of COVID-19" <ref>[https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/covid-19-prevention-and-control-measures-public-transport ECDC Technical Report] - Considerations for infection prevention and control measures on public transport in the context of COVID-19. 29 April 2020.</ref>
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* ECDC Updates the Technical Report "Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and supply of substances of human origin in the EU/EEA - First update" <ref>[https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-and-supply-substances-human-origin ECDC Technical Report] - Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and supply of substances of human origin in the EU/EEA - First update. 29 April 2020</ref>
  
 
===30 April (3,130,790 cases)===
 
===30 April (3,130,790 cases)===
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** When countries have passed the peak of transmission and case numbers are decreasing, and particularly when stringent public health and social measures are being adjusted, rapid identification of cases and contact tracing are critical to maintain low levels of transmission and rapidly identify and break new transmission chains.
 
** When countries have passed the peak of transmission and case numbers are decreasing, and particularly when stringent public health and social measures are being adjusted, rapid identification of cases and contact tracing are critical to maintain low levels of transmission and rapidly identify and break new transmission chains.
  
===11 May (4,063,525 cases)===
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===11 May (4,066,883 cases)===
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===12 May (4,137,915 cases)===
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===13 May (4,223,701 cases)===
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* ECDC Publishes a 3rd update of the Technical Report "Infection prevention and control and preparedness for COVID-19 in healthcare settings - third update" <ref>[https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/infection-prevention-and-control-and-preparedness-covid-19-healthcare-settings Infection prevention and control and preparedness for COVID-19 in healthcare settings - third update]. 13 May 2020. </ref>
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===14 May (4,309,652 cases)===
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===15 May (4,406,317 cases)===
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* ECDC published a Rapid Risk Assessment: Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.<ref name="RRA-PIMS">ECDC RAPID RISK ASSESSMENT - Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. [https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/covid-19-risk-assessment-paediatric-inflammatory-multisystem-syndrome-15-May-2020.pdf 15 May 2020] </ref>
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** Rare disease: symptoms are a mix of the ones for Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and are characterised, among others, by fever, abdominal pain and cardiac involvement.
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** In total, about 230 suspected cases of this new paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS) have been reported in EU/EEA countries and the UK in 2020, including two fatalities, one in the UK and one in France. Investigation is ongoing.
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===16 May (4,504,351 cases)===
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===17 May (4,598,546 cases)===
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===18 May (4,679,511 cases)===
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===19 May ()===
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* ECDC publishes "[https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/surveillance-COVID-19-long-term-care-facilities-EU-EEA Surveillance of COVID-19 at long-term care facilities in the EU/EEA]"
  
 
=References=
 
=References=
 
<References/>
 
<References/>

Latest revision as of 10:51, 19 May 2020

Contents

2019[edit]

November[edit]

17 November[edit]

A confirmed case of the novel coronavirus emerged on 17 November 2019, according to 13 March 2020 reports of official Chinese government sources,[1] but was not recognized at that time. There may have been earlier patients; the search for them continues.[2][3][4]

December[edit]

1 December[edit]

The first known patient started experiencing symptoms on 1 December 2019. He had not been to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market of Wuhan. No epidemiological link could be found between this case and later cases.[5][6]

8–18 December[edit]

Between 8 and 18 December 2019, seven cases later diagnosed as COVID19 were documented; two of them were linked with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market; five were not.[7]

12 December[edit]

Chinese state broadcaster CCTV reported in a broadcast airing on 12 January 2020 that a "new viral outbreak was first detected in the city of Wuhan, China, on 12 December 2019". [8]

18-29 December[edit]

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) that will eventually be used for viral genome sequencing is collected from hospital patients between the 18th and 29th of December.[9]

21 December[edit]

On 20 January 2020, Chinese epidemiologists with the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) published an article stating that the first cluster of patients with "pneumonia of an unknown cause" occurred beginning on 21 December 2019.[10]

25 December[edit]

According to a post at China Youth Daily, Wuhan Fifth Hospital gastroenterology director Lu Xiaohong reported suspected infection by hospital staff on 25 December.[11]

29 December[edit]

According to a CCDC publication on 31 January 2020, the facts leading up to the identification of the 2019-nCoV were as follows, "On 29 December 2019, a hospital in Wuhan admitted four individuals with pneumonia and recognized that all four had worked in the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which sells live poultry, aquatic products, and several kinds of wild animals to the public. The hospital reported this occurrence to the CCDC, which led Wuhan CCDC staff to initiate a field investigation with a retrospective search for pneumonia patients potentially linked to the market. The investigators found additional patients linked to the market, and on 30 December, health authorities from Hubei Province reported this cluster to CCDC. The following day, CCDC sent experts to Wuhan to support the investigation and control effort. Samples from these patients were obtained for laboratory analyses".[12]

30 December[edit]

On 2019-12-30, genetic sequencing report of the pathogen of a patient indicated inaccurately the discovery of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS coronavirus) in the test result. After receiving the test result, multiple doctors in Wuhan shared the information via the internet, including Li Wenliang, an ophthalmologist at Wuhan Central Hospital, who posted a warning to alumni from his medical school class via a WeChat online forum that a cluster of seven patients treating within the ophthalmology department had been unsuccessfully treated for symptoms of viral pneumonia and diagnosed with SARS. [13][14] Because these patients did not respond to traditional treatments, they were quarantined in an ER department of the Wuhan Central Hospital.[15] In the WeChat post, Li erroneously posted that "X Hospital has many confirmed cases of SARS" and "There had been 7 confirmed cases of SARS".[16] Li posted a snippet of an RNA analysis finding "SARS coronavirus" and extensive bacteria colonies in a patient's airways.[17] Li contracted this coronavirus from a patient he treated, was hospitalized on 12 January 2020 and died on 7 February 2020.[18]

News of an outbreak of "pneumonia of unknown origin" started circulating on social media on the evening of 30 December 2019.[19][20][21]The social media reports stated that 27 patients in Wuhan—most of them stall holders at the Huanan Seafood Market—had been treated for the mystery illness.[21]

On the evening of 30 December 2019, an "urgent notice on the treatment of pneumonia of unknown cause" was issued by the Wuhan Municipal Health Committee on its Weibo social media account.[22][23] It was reported that since the beginning of December, there had been "a successive series of patients with unexplained pneumonia"—27 suspected cases in total, seven of which were in critical condition and 18 were stable, two of which were on the verge of being discharged soon.[22] The Wuhan Municipal Health Committee reported to the WHO that 27 people had been diagnosed with pneumonia of unknown cause.[23] Most were stallholders from the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, seven of whom were in critical condition. The Wuhan Municipal Health Commission also made a public announcement regarding the situation.

Early investigations into the cause of the pneumonia ruled out seasonal influenza, SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome and bird flu.[24][25]

Hong Kong Secretary for Food and Health Sophia Chan Siu-chee announced after an urgent night-time meeting with officials and experts, "any suspected cases including the presentation of fever and acute respiratory illness or pneumonia, and travel history to Wuhan within 14 days before onset of symptoms, we will put the patients in isolation."[21]

31 December 2019 (27 cases)[edit]

  • WHO Reports
    • At the close of 2019, the WHO China Country Office was informed of pneumonia of unknown cause, detected in the city of Wuhan in Hubei province, China. According to the authorities, some patients were operating dealers or vendors in the Huanan Seafood market.
    • Staying in close contact with national authorities, WHO began monitoring the situation and requested further information on the laboratory tests performed and the different diagnoses considered.

2020[edit]

January[edit]

1 January[edit]

  • Taiwan is already implementing health precautions: arrivals on direct flights from Wuhan are being screened for flu-like symptoms on the tarmac in Taipei before they can disembark.

4 January (44 cases)[edit]

  • WHO announced it would work across its 3 levels – country office, regional office and HQ – to track the situation and share details as they emerged.
  • China has reported to WHO a cluster of #pneumonia cases —with no deaths— in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Investigations are underway to identify the cause of this illness.
  • Singapore and Hong Kong will be monitoring arrivals from the city at their borders.
  • In Wuhan, eight people accused of spreading “rumours” about the disease are summoned to the Public Security Bureau. Another who will be reprimanded is a Wuhan ophthalmologist, Li Wenliang, for showing a group of his medical school alumni an analysis of the virus he believed was Sars.[26]
    • Phrases such as “unknown Wuhan pneumonia” and “Wuhan seafood market” are already censored on YY, a popular live-streaming platform. [26]

5 January (59 cases)[edit]

  • WHO published its risk assessment and advice and reported on the status of patients and the public health response by national authorities to the cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan.

9 January (59 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Rapid Risk Assessment (RRA) on COVID19 [27]
    • "Considering there is no indication of human-to-human transmission and no cases detected outside of China, the likelihood of introduction to the EU is considered to be low, but cannot be excluded."

10 January (59 cases)[edit]

  • WHO issues its first guidance on the novel coronavirus [28]
    • Developed with reference to other coronaviruses, such as SARS and MERS, WHO issued a tool for countries to check their ability to detect and respond to a novel coronavirus.
    • This information is to help with identifying main gaps, assessing risks and planning for additional investigations, response and control actions.
  • Li Wenliang, the ophthalmologist in Wuhan who blew the whistle on this outbreak, starts to show symptoms.[26]

12 January (59 cases)[edit]

  • WHO News Item: [29]
    • China shares the genetic sequence of the novel coronavirus, which will be very important for other countries as they develop specific diagnostic kits.
    • Whole genome sequences for the novel #coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from the Chinese authorities were shared with WHO and have also been submitted by Chinese authorities to the GISAID platform so that they can be accessed by public health authorities, laboratories and researchers. <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">Whole genome sequences for the novel <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/coronavirus?src=hash&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#coronavirus</a> (2019-nCoV) from the Chinese🇨🇳 authorities were shared with WHO and have also been submitted by Chinese authorities to the GISAID platform so that they can be accessed by public health authorities, laboratories and researchers. <a href="https://t.co/wmtGfI4dWl">pic.twitter.com/wmtGfI4dWl</a></p>— World Health Organization (WHO) (@WHO) <a href="https://twitter.com/WHO/status/1216124597952745472?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 11, 2020</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

13 January (60 cases)[edit]

  • Officials confirmed a case of the novel coronavirus in Thailand. It was not unexpected that cases of the novel coronavirus would emerge outside of China and reinforces why WHO calls for active monitoring and preparedness in other countries.
  • On 13 January 2020, the #Thailand’s Ministry of Public Health @pr_moph reported the first imported case of lab-confirmed novel #coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from #Wuhan, #China https://t.co/Wr6VZTnCj2

16 January (61 cases)[edit]

17 January (66 cases)[edit]

18 January (83 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • 300 000 Passengers/month EU <--> China
    • Novel coronavirus circulates in China
    • 2 cases ex China in Thailand; 1 in Japan
    • Returning travelers with fever should consult a physician & inform of China visit
  • WHO
  • Case def, lab guidance, case management

21 January (392 cases)[edit]

  • WHO Joint Mission to China
    • The delegation observed and discussed active surveillance processes, temperature screening at Wuhan Tianhe airport, laboratory facilities, infection prevention and control measures at Zhongnan hospital and its associated fever clinics, and the deployment of a test kit to detect the virus.
    • The delegation also discussed public communication efforts and China's plan to expand the case definition for the novel coronavirus, which will build a clearer picture of the spectrum of severity of the virus.
    • At the end of the visit, the Chinese Government released the primers and probes used in the test kit for the novel coronavirus to help other countries detect it. Chinese experts also shared a range of protocols that will be used in developing international guidelines, including case definitions, clinical management protocols and infection control.

22 January (534 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC RRA COVID19 (#1)
    • the potential impact of 2019-nCoV outbreaks is high;
    • further global spread is likely;
    • there is currently a moderate likelihood of infection for EU/EEA travelers visiting Wuhan;
    • there is a high likelihood of case importation into countries with the greatest volume of people traveling to and from Wuhan (i.e. countries in Asia);
    • there is a moderate likelihood of detecting cases imported into EU/EEA countries;
    • adherence to appropriate infection prevention and control practices, particularly in healthcare settings in EU/EEA countries with direct links to Wuhan, means that the likelihood of a case reported in the EU resulting in secondary cases within the EU/EEA is low.

23 January (631 cases)[edit]

  • On 22-23 February, the WHO Director-General convened the Emergency Committee to consider the outbreak of the novel coronavirus in China, with cases also reported in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Thailand and Singapore.
  • Several Committee members considered it still too early to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), given its restrictive and binary nature. Among other recommendations, the Committee advised that it be recalled in approximately 10 days

25 January (1,350 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • Wuhan outbreak evolves rapidly
    • Cases in 9 other countries outside China
    • Person to Person spread likely
  • WHO
    • Launch of a free online introductory course on the novel coronavirus

26 January (2,023 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC RRA COVID19 (#2)
    • the potential impact of 2019-nCoV outbreaks is high;
    • further global spread is likely;
    • there is currently a moderate likelihood of infection for EU/EEA citizens residing in or visiting Wuhan, Hubei province, China;
    • there is a high likelihood of further case importation into countries with the greatest volume of people who have travelled from Wuhan, Hubei Province (i.e. countries in Asia);
    • there is a moderate likelihood of further case importation into EU/EEA countries;
    • adherence to appropriate infection prevention and control practices, particularly in healthcare settings in EU/EEA countries with direct links to Hubei, means that the likelihood of a case detected in the EU resulting in secondary cases within the EU/EEA is low;
    • the impact of the late detection of an imported case in an EU/EEA country without the application of appropriate infection prevention and control measures would be high, therefore in such a scenario the risk of secondary transmission in the community setting is estimated to be very high

30 January (7,823 cases)[edit]

  • WHO declares: 2019-nCoV = PHEIC
    • Temporary recommendations under IHR
    • Acknowledging that cases have been reported in five WHO regions in one month, the Committee noted that early detection, isolating and treating cases, contact tracing and social distancing measures – in line with the level of risk – can all work to interrupt virus spread.

31 January (9,826 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC RRA COVID19 (#3)
    • the potential impact of 2019-nCoV outbreaks is high;
    • the likelihood of infection for EU/EEA citizens residing in or visiting Hubei province is estimated to be high;
    • the likelihood of infection for EU/EEA citizens in other Chinese provinces is moderate and will increase;
    • there is a moderate-to-high likelihood of additional imported cases in the EU/EEA;
    • the likelihood of observing further limited human-to-human transmission within the EU/EEA is estimated as very low to low if cases are detected early and appropriate infection prevention and control (IPC) practices are implemented, particularly in healthcare settings in EU/EEA countries;
    • assuming that cases in the EU/EEA are detected in a timely manner and that rigorous IPC measures are applied, the likelihood of sustained human-to-human transmission within the EU/EEA is currently very low to low;
    • the late detection of an imported case in an EU/EEA country without the application of appropriate infection prevention and control measures would result in the high likelihood of human-to-human transmission, therefore in such a scenario, the risk of secondary transmission in the community setting is estimated to be high.

February[edit]

1 February (11,946 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • 16 cases in EU (5 countries), with local transmission
    • China takes unprecedented control measures
    • Potential impact of 2019-nCoV is high
    • Moderate-High likelihood of more imported cases in EU
    • Likelihood of human-human transmission in EU is low if early detection of cases and adherence to appropriate IPC practices are implemented, in particular in health care settings

3 February (17,372 cases)[edit]

  • Rapid Communication Eurosurveillance
    • 38 labs in 24 EU countries had COVID19 tests available
    • Availability of primers/probes, positive controls and personnel were main implementation barriers

5 February (24,522 cases)[edit]

  • Global community asks for US$675 million to help protect vulnerable countries from the outbreak

8 February (34,933 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • 9 EU countries with cases (31)

10 February (40,540 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC publishes “Guidelines for the use of non-pharmaceutical measures to delay and mitigate the impact of 2019-nCoV
    • Hand Hygiene
    • Respiratory Hygiene (“Cough Etiquette”)
    • Face Masks & Respirators
      • In Health care: Surgical mask for suspected COVID19 cases. FFP masks for HCW during assessment & management
      • In other high exposures: Surgical masks for care providers of suspect COVID19 cases and those with extensive public contact
      • In Community: By individuals with respiratory symptoms before seeking medical attention
    • Other PPE:
      • HCW caring for COVID19, especially when aerosol-generating procedures.
    • Social distancing
      • Voluntary isolation of COVID19 cases in the community.
      • Close contacts: Isolation at home & active daily monitoring
      • Casual contacts: Self-monitoring
    • Schools:
      • school children are considered to be one of the main drivers of respiratory virus spread in the community. It is not yet known how much nCoV2 transmission will occur among children
      • proactive school closures may be considered if there is ongoing transmission of 2019-nCoV in an area.

11 February (43,105 cases)[edit]

  • Novel coronavirus disease named COVID-19
  • WHO Director-General, Dr Tedros, announces a UN crisis management structure, led by 'my general' Dr Mike Ryan. In addition, Dr Tedros says that every country should take this virus very seriously. He is losing sleep over it, and he expects that every government should lose sleep over it. This virus should be seen as 'public health enemy nr 1' (see video at 30 minutes)
    • "There is a window of opportunity. If we lose it, we will regret it. You need to hit hard, fast" (see video at 13 minutes)

12 February (45,177 cases)[edit]

  • Research and innovation forum sets priorities for COVID-19 research
    • More than 400 experts and funders met at WHO’s Geneva HQ to accelerate research to stop the COVID-19 outbreak. Featuring updates from the frontlines of the response in China, the meeting addressed issues such as: developing easy-to-apply diagnostics, accelerating existing vaccine candidates and preventing infection
  • UN activates WHO-led Crisis Management Team
    • The Crisis Management Team (CMT) mechanism brings together WHO, OCHA, IMO, UNICEF, ICAO, WFP, FAO, the World Bank and several UN Secretariat departments.
    • The CMT will be managed by the Executive Director of WHO Health Emergencies Programme, Dr Mike Ryan. It will help WHO focus on the health response while the other agencies will bring their expertise to bear on the wider social, economic and developmental implications of the outbreak

13 February (60,328 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC publishes “Guidance on community engagement for public health events caused by communicable disease threats in the EU/EEA”:
    • Through all three phases of the preparedness cycle
      1. Recognise the community as a partner
      2. Develop an understanding of community perceptions
      3. Optimise communications with at-risk communities
      4. Invest in a trusted spokesperson and long-term media relations.
    • Anticipation phase
      1. Map stakeholders and integrate them into preparedness planning
      2. Develop an accessible and inclusive preparedness and response training program
      3. Cultivate relationships with communities engaged in disease surveillance
      4. Engage with pre-existing community networks and infrastructures
      5. Set a research agenda in collaboration with community partners.
    • Response phase
      1. Coordinate distribution of information, protective equipment and other resources for and with community partners
      2. If using an all-hazards approach, recognize the special character of infectious disease outbreaks and act accordingly
      3. Facilitate resolving of possible issues with community-level financial losses.
    • Recovery phase
      1. Integrate and document community engagement in evaluation processes
      2. Promote community debriefing, dialogue and a culture of shared learning.

14 February (64,543 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC RRA COVID19 (#4)
    • It is important that countries consider the roll-out of primary diagnostic testing capacity to local clinical and diagnostic laboratories.
    • Confirmatory testing remains the responsibility of the referral or reference laboratories.
    • Therefore, positive specimens should still be shipped for second detection assay and possible sequencing to referral or reference laboratories.
    • During the containment phase, extensive tracing and risk assessment of contacts of probable and confirmed cases detected in EU/EEA countries is required in order to minimize the further spread and to strengthen the evidence base on the characteristics and transmission pattern of the disease.
    • Suspected, probable or confirmed cases of COVID19 should be reported to the public health authorities and managed in accordance with national guidance and/or WHO’s patient management guidelines

15 February (67,103 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • Further P-P transmission in EU
    • Hospital associated transmission suspected in 41% of hospitalized Wuhan patients
  • WHO
    • "We must be guided by solidarity, not stigma. The greatest enemy we face is not the virus itself; it’s the stigma that turns us against each other. We must stop stigma and hate.“ Dr. Tedros

17 February (71,332 cases)[edit]

  • WHO issues guidance on mass gathering and taking care of ill travelers
    • Based on lessons from H1N1 and Ebola, WHO has outlined planning considerations for organizers of mass gatherings, in light of the COVID-19 outbreak. It has also issued advice on how to detect and take care of ill travelers, who are suspected COVID-19 cases.

18 February (73,327 cases)[edit]

  • WHO has shipped supplies of personal protective equipment to 21 countries.
    • By the end of this week, 40 countries in Africa and 29 in the Americas are due to have the ability to detect COVID-19

21 February (76,719 cases)[edit]

  • WHO Director-General warns that the window of opportunity is “narrowing”
  • Special envoys on COVID-19 selected
    • Professor Dr Maha El Rabbat, former Minister of Health of Egypt;
    • Dr David Nabarro, former special adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General
    • Dr John Nkengasong, Director of the African Centres for Disease Control and Prevention;
    • Dr Mirta Roses, former Director of the WHO Region of the Americas;
    • Dr Shin Young-soo, former Regional Director of the WHO Region of the Western Pacific;
    • Professor Samba Sow, Director-General of the Center for Vaccine Development in Mali.

22 February (77,804 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • Viral shedding expected to be similar to Influenza
  • WHO
    • During the past month about 11 000 African health workers have been trained using WHO’s online courses on COVID-19, which are available free of charge in English, French & other languages
    • WHO’s Director-General and Regional Director for Africa addressed an emergency meeting of ministers of health to agree on a continental strategy for Africa to strengthen preparedness and responses to the COVID-19 outbreak

23 February (78,812 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • Viral shedding expected to be similar to Influenza
  • WHO
    • During the past month about 11 000 African health workers have been trained using WHO’s online courses on COVID-19, which are available free of charge in English, French & other languages
    • WHO’s Director-General and Regional Director for Africa addressed an emergency meeting of ministers of health to agree on a continental strategy for Africa to strengthen preparedness and responses to the COVID-19 outbreak

24 February (79,339 cases)[edit]

  • UN Secretary-General António Guterres met with the WHO Director-General and other WHO leaders, receiving a briefing on COVID-19, Ebola and polio. He expressed great admiration for health workers, including in China, who are working tirelessly to save lives. The UN Secretary-General also stressed that there is no space for stigma and discrimination and said we must be guided by science and human rights-based interventions
  • A team of experts from WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) will focus on: understanding how events developed, learning from the Italian experience and supporting control and prevention efforts by the authorities.
  • To limit further human to human transmission, WHO experts will provide support in the areas of clinical management, infection prevention and control, surveillance and risk communication.

25 February (80,132 cases)[edit]

  • The team of 25 international and Chinese experts traveled to several different provinces, with a small group going to Wuhan, the epicenter of the outbreak.
    • Among the team's findings was that the epidemic peaked and plateaued between the 23rd of January and the 2nd of February, and has been declining steadily since then. The team also estimates that the measures taken in China have averted a significant number of cases.
    • In a press conference in Geneva on Tuesday 25 February, Dr Bruce Aylward, the mission's lead, reported back on what China has done, its impact and implications.
  • The WHO Director-General has repeatedly called for "solidarity, not stigma" to address COVID-19. 
    • WHO has worked with UNICEF and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies on a guide to preventing and addressing the social stigma associated with the disease. 
    • It's vital to fight stigma because it can drive people to hide the illness, not seek health care immediately and discourage them from adopting healthy behaviors. 
    • This guide includes some tips and messages, as well as dos and don'ts on language when talking about COVID-19.

26 February (80,995 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC publishes Checklist for hospitals preparing for the reception and care of (COVID-19) patients
    • Elements to be assessed have been divided into the following areas:
      • Establishment of a core team and key internal and external contact points
      • Human, material and facility capacity
      • Communication and data protection
      • Hand hygiene, personal protective equipment (PPE), and waste management
      • Triage, first contact and prioritisation
      • Patient placement, moving of the patients in the facility, and visitor access
      • Environmental cleaning
  • WHO: Get your workplace ready for COVID-19

27 February (82,101 cases)[edit]

  • WHO: What every country should be asking itself
    • Are we ready for the first case?
    • Do we have enough medical oxygen, ventilators and other vital equipment?
    • How will we know if there are cases in other areas of the country?
    • Do our health workers have the training and equipment they need to stay safe?
    • Do we have the right measures at airports and border crossings to test people who are sick?
    • Do our labs have the right chemicals that allow them to test samples?
    • Are we ready to treat patients with severe or critical disease?
    • Do our hospitals and clinics have the right procedures to prevent and control infections?
    • Do our people have the right information? Do they know what the disease looks like?

28 February (83,365 cases)[edit]

  • WHO: What every individual can do to protect themselves and others

29 February (85,203 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • In EU: 770 cases / 18 deaths in 19 countries

March[edit]

1 March (87,024 cases)[edit]

  • UN releases US$15 million for COVID-19 response

2 March (89,068 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC RRA COVID19 (#5)
    • Immediate activation of national emergency response mechanisms and pandemic preparedness plans to ensure containment and mitigation of COVID-19 with non-pharmaceutical public health measures.
    • Ensuring the general public is aware of the seriousness of COVID-19. A high degree of population understanding, community engagement and acceptance of the measures put in place (including more stringent social ** distancing) are key in preventing further spread.
    • Implementation of protocols for COVID-19 laboratory testing, diagnosis, surveillance and treatment.
    • Enhancement of surveillance, epidemiological investigation, close contact tracing, management of close contacts, immediate case detection and isolation.
    • Implementation of social distancing (e.g. the suspension of large-scale gatherings and the closure of schools and workplaces) to interrupt the chains of transmission.
    • Adapted risk communication and provision of adequate personal protective equipment for healthcare workers and rigorous application of infection prevention and control measures in healthcare facilities.
    • Provision of adequate healthcare capacity to isolate, support and actively treat patients.
    • Publishes COVID19 case definition (issues reported)
  • WHO:
    • Publishes COVID19 case definition (issues reported)
    • Mission of WHO experts arrive in Iran
    • “There’s no choice but to act now” (WHO, Dr Tedros)

3 March (90,664 cases))[edit]

  • Shortage of personal protective equipment endangering health workers worldwide

5 March (95,316 cases)[edit]

  • WHO: Director-General emphasized that the COVID-19 epidemic “can be pushed back, but only with a collective coordinated and comprehensive approach that engages the entire machinery of government.”

6 March (98,172 cases)[edit]

  • WHO publishes draft R&D blueprint draft for COVID-19
    • The R&D roadmap for COVID-19 outlines research priorities in 9 key areas. These include the natural history of the virus, epidemiology, diagnostics, clinical management, ethical considerations and social sciences, as well as longer-term goals for therapeutics and vaccines.

7 March (102,133 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • In EU: 4738 cases / 140 deaths in 27 countries
  • WHO
    • Marking 100 000 cases worldwide

8 March (105,824 cases)[edit]

  • WHO:
    • Interim guidance on critical preparedness, readiness and response actions

9 March (109,695 cases)[edit]

  • WHO: “The rule of the game is: never give up.”
    • “We are not at the mercy of this virus,” said the WHO Director-General at the 9 March media briefing.
    • All countries must aim to stop transmission and prevent the spread of COVID-19, whether they face no cases, sporadic cases, clusters or community transmission.
    • “Let hope be the antidote to fear. Let solidarity be the antidote to blame. Let our shared humanity be the antidote to our shared threat"

10 March (114,232 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Publishes Discharge criteria for confirmed COVID-19 cases
  • Answers to questions
    • What is the duration of SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding in bodily fluids of
      • Symptomatic patients after remission of symptoms?
      • Asymptomatic patients?
    • Which tests are available to document the lack of infectivity in a previously diagnosed infection?
    • What is the longest documented transmission from an asymptomatic person?
  • WHO:
    • Provides guidance to help people manage fear, stigma and discrimination during COVID-19
    • WHO issues schools guidance with UNICEF and IFRC

11 March (118,610 cases)[edit]

  • WHO declares a pandemic

12 March (125,497 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Publishes Infection prevention and control for COVID-19 in healthcare settings
    • This update addresses the possible limited supply of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand hygiene materials, and environmental hygiene materials for healthcare facilities
  • ECDC RRA COVID19 (#6)
    • Need for immediate targeted action
      • Situation similar to China and Italy threatens to occur in other countries within days or weeks
    • Social distancing
      • Immediate isolation of suspect COVID19
      • Suspension of mass gathering
      • Teleworking
      • Closure of schools
      • Cordon sanitaire around communities with high transmission
    • Public awareness & solidarity
    • IPC in HealthCare
    • Train HCW who might be asked for support
    • Surveillance should focus on rapid case detection, shifting to assessing the effectiveness of community measures

13 March (133,852 cases)[edit]

14 March (143,227 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • In EU: 22 753 cases / 1032 deaths in all countries

16 March (167,418 cases)[edit]

  • WHO: "You cannot fight a fire blindfolded.“
    • Countries should test every suspected case of COVID-19.
    • If people test positive, they should be isolated and the people they have been in close contact with up to 2 days before they developed symptoms should be sought out, and those people should be tested too if they show symptoms of COVID-19.
    • WHO also advises that all confirmed cases, even mild cases, should be isolated in health facilities, to prevent transmission and provide adequate care.
    • But we recognize that many countries have already exceeded their capacity to care for mild cases in dedicated health facilities.
    • In that situation, countries should prioritize older patients and those with underlying conditions.

17 March (180,163 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Publishes Guidance for health system contingency planning during widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with high impact on healthcare services
    • Approaches on how to increase capacity for managing COVID-19 cases in the context of widespread sustained SARS-CoV-2 transmission
  • WHO:
    • New guidance on people affected by humanitarian crises [31]
    • WHO calls for urgent, aggressive actions to combat COVID-19, as cases soar in South-East Asia Region

18 March (194,913 cases)[edit]

  • European Medicines Agency (EMA): (Also published by WHO)
    • On 18 March 2020, EMA published a statement on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories for COVID-19. [32]
    • There is currently no scientific evidence establishing a link between ibuprofen and worsening of COVID‑19
  • More than 320 000 learners enroll in online COVID-19 courses
  • WHO Launch of SOLIDARITY trial

19 March (213,258 cases)[edit]

20 March (242,472 cases)[edit]

  • WHO: Young people "are not invincible"
    • Speaking at the COVID-19 media briefing, the Director-General said:
    • "Although older people are the hardest hit, younger people are not spared. Data from many countries clearly show that people under 50 make up a significant proportion of patients requiring hospitalization. Today, I have a message for young people: you are not invincible. This virus could put you in hospital for weeks, or even kill you. Even if you don’t get sick, the choices you make about where you go could be the difference between life and death for someone else. I’m grateful that so many young people are spreading the word and not the virus.“
  • WHO Health Alert for coronavirus launches on WhatsApp

21 March (271,241 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC informs countries
    • In EU: 74 362 cases / 3694 deaths in all countries

22 March (305,270 cases)[edit]

23 March (338,298 cases)[edit]

24 March (378,113 cases)[edit]

25 March (417,061 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC RRA COVID19 (#7)
    • In the present situation where COVID-19 is rapidly spreading in Europe, the current assessment is:
      • The risk of severe disease associated with COVID-19 for people in the EU/EEA and the UK is currently considered moderate for the general population and very high for older adults and individuals with chronic underlying conditions.
      • The risk of occurrence of widespread national community transmission of COVID-19 in the EU/EEA and the UK in the coming weeks is moderate if effective mitigation measures are in place and very high if insufficient mitigation measures are in place.
      • The risk of healthcare system capacity being exceeded in the EU/EEA and the UK in the coming weeks is considered high.
    • Measures taken at this stage should ultimately aim at protecting the most vulnerable population groups from severe illness and fatal outcome by reducing transmission in the general population and enabling the reinforcement of healthcare systems. Given the current epidemiology and risk assessment, and the expected developments in the next days to few weeks, the following public health measures to reduce the further spread and mitigate the impact of the pandemic should be applied in EU/EEA countries.
    • Maintain stringent measures until a ‘game-changer’ is developed, for example, a vaccine or a mass-produced, sensitive rapid diagnostic test.
    • Apply stringent measures until incidence drops to a certain threshold, then relax measures before reintroducing them before the hospital capacity threshold is reached again.
    • Identify a mix of measures that maintains incidence at slightly below hospital capacity, thereby reducing the overall number of cases.

26 March (467,710 cases)[edit]

27 March (528,025 cases)[edit]

  • The Switzerland based pharmaceutical company Roche releases the detailed guidelines on how to prepare the lysis buffer fluid for the COVID19 test, after pressure and negotiations with Dutch ministry of health. [35]
  • WHO WhatsApp health alert launches in Arabic, French and Spanish.
  • UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson tests positive for SARS-CoV2.

28 March (592,275)[edit]

29 March (656,444)[edit]

30 March (715,660)[edit]

31 March (777,798 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC publishes
    • "Infection prevention and control and preparedness for COVID-19 in healthcare settings" [37]
    • "Contact tracing: Public health management of persons, including healthcare workers, having had contact with COVID-19 cases in the European Union – second update" [38]
  • WHO warns about "Falsified medical products, including in vitro diagnostics, that claim to prevent, detect, treat or cure COVID-19" [39]

April[edit]

1 April (853,200 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Publishes "An overview of the rapid test situation for COVID-19 diagnosis in the EU/EEA" [40]

2 April (928,437 cases)[edit]

3 April (1,000,249 cases)[edit]

  • Total deaths since 31 December 2019 are 51,515 globally. [41]

4 April (1,082,054 cases)[edit]

  • UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson is hospitalised with #COVID19 [42]

5 April (1,174,652 cases)[edit]

6 April (1,244,421 cases)[edit]

  • WHO Situation Report 77:[43]

7 April (1,316,988 cases)[edit]

8 April (1,391,888 Cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Publishes:
    • a new Rapid Risk Assessment (RRA #8) [44]
    • Guidance for discharge and ending isolation in the context of widespread community transmission of COVID-19 – first update. [45]
    • Using face masks in the community - Reducing COVID-19 transmission from potentially asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic people through the use of face masks. [46]

9 April (1,476,818 Cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Publishes:
    • Strategies for Surveillance of COVID19. [47]
    • Contact tracing: Public health management of persons, including healthcare workers, having had contact with COVID-19 cases in the European Union - second update. [48]

10 April (1,563,857 cases)[edit]

11 april (1,653,206 cases)[edit]

12 april (1,734,913 cases)[edit]

13 april (1,807,303 cases)[edit]

14 april (1,873,265 Cases)[edit]

ECDC posts infographic: using face masks in the community: Facemask-infographic-long-version.png

15 april (1,948,511 cases)[edit]

  • The German Federal Ministry has agreed with the German States the following: [49]
    • Guiding principle: "to protect all people in Germany as well as possible from the infection"
    • The most important measure for the coming time remains to keep your distance.
    • In order to quickly identify infection chains in the future, carry out targeted tests, ensure full contact tracking and provide professional care for those affected, considerable additional personnel capacities are created in the local public health services, at least one team of 5 people per 20,000 inhabitants
    • The use of digital “contact tracing” is a key measure to support the quick and complete tracking of contacts. The federal government and the federal states support the architectural concept of "Pan-European Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing" because it follows a pan-European approach, provides for compliance with European and German data protection rules and only anonymizes epidemiologically relevant contacts of the last three weeks on the user's mobile phone without saves the recording of the movement profile. In addition, the use of the app should be voluntary
    • Germany has a high test capacity of up to 650,000 tests a week to detect corona infections (PCR tests). The federal government secures additional test capacities for Germany by purchasing test equipment
    • Large events play a major role in infection dynamics, which is why they remain prohibited at least until August 31, 2020
    • The following shops can also reopen under conditions of hygiene, to control access and to avoid queues:
      • all shops up to 800 sqm sales area
      • and regardless of the sales area car dealers, bicycle dealers, bookstores.

16 April (2,029,930 cases)[edit]

17 April (2,114,269 cases)[edit]

  • The Dutch National Guidelines for COVID19 Control are updated
    • Testing policy is still restricted to only high-risk groups and health care workers
    • source and contact tracing are said not to be a priority
    • Contact tracing is restricted to contacts that could transmit COVID to high-risk groups
  • Dr Tedros mentions the solidarity response and calls for a joint response from private and public sectors. Here is the video of the WHO briefing:

18 April (2,197,593 cases)[edit]

  • One World: Together At Home concert

19 April (2,281,714 cases)[edit]

20 April (2,355,853 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Published Infographic CONTACT TRACING:

COVID-19-contact-tracing-infographic 0.png


21 April (2,427,353 cases)[edit]

22 April (2,513,399 cases)[edit]

23 April (2,579,823 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC publishes the 9th Rapid Risk Assessment: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the EU/EEA and the UK– ninth update [50]
    • It includes public health objectives: "Limit and control virus circulation and transmission in the general population now (flattening the curve) and for the years to come to maintain the number of new SARS-CoV-2 infections at manageable levels for the healthcare system, and possibly allowing for gradual acquisition of population immunity."; this suggests that ECDC has given up the ambition of containment, and joins the member states that aim for group immunity, and 'controlled circulation'

24 April (2,657,910 cases)[edit]

  • WHO's Regional Office for Europe has published key considerations for the gradual easing of the lockdown restrictions introduced by many countries in response to the spread of COVID-19 across the European Region.
    • The transition out of lockdown is set to be a complex and uncertain phase. Challenges and circumstances vary from country to country and there is no one-size-fits-all approach. It is vital that countries clearly communicate this to the public to build trust and ensure that people observe restrictions specific to their situation.

25 April (2,730,743 cases)[edit]

26 April (2,832,459 cases)[edit]

27 April (2,915,995 cases)[edit]

28 April (2,981,427 cases)[edit]

  • The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) marks its 20th anniversary
  • The WHO Director-General, Executive Director of the Health Emergencies Programme and COVID-19 Technical Lead addressed the Inter-Parliamentary Union's webinar on reducing risks, strengthening emergency preparedness and increasing resilience.

29 April (3,054,404 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC publishes "Considerations for infection prevention and control measures on public transport in the context of COVID-19" [51]
  • ECDC Updates the Technical Report "Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and supply of substances of human origin in the EU/EEA - First update" [52]

30 April (3,130,790 cases)[edit]

  • The WHO-IHR Emergency Committee met and issued its statement.
    • Membership of the Emergency Committee was expanded to reflect the nature of the pandemic and the need to include additional areas of expertise.
    • The Committee unanimously agreed that the outbreak still constitutes a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) and offered advice to the Director-General, who declared that the outbreak of COVID-19 continues to constitute a PHEIC.
    • The Committee issued advice to WHO on: coordination, planning, and monitoring; One Health; essential health services; risk communication and community engagement; surveillance and travel and trade.
    • The Committee also issued advice to all States Parties on: coordination and collaboration; preparedness; surveillance; additional health measures; health workers; food security; One Health; risk communication and community engagement; research and development; and essential health services

1 May (3,214,256 cases)[edit]

  • WHO and the European Investment Bank (EIB) will boost cooperation to strengthen public health, the supply of essential equipment, training, and investment in countries most vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. The first phase will address urgent needs and strengthen primary health care in ten African countries. The agreement establishes a close collaboration to overcome market failure and stimulate investments in global health, accelerating progress towards Universal Health Coverage.

2 May (3,308,966 cases)[edit]

3 May (3,389,549 cases)[edit]

4 May (3,467,321 cases)[edit]

5 May (3,545,486 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC publishes: Contact tracing for COVID-19: current evidence, options for scale-up and an assessment of resources needed. [53]

6 May (3,624,789 cases)[edit]

7 May (3,714,816 cases)[edit]

8 May (3,809,262 cases)[edit]

9 May (3,899,379 cases)[edit]

10 May (3,986,931 cases)[edit]

  • WHO publishes contact tracing guidelines. [54]
    • Critical elements of the implementation of contact tracing are community engagement and public support; careful planning and consideration of local contexts, communities, and cultures; a workforce of trained contact tracers and supervisors; logistics support to contact tracing teams; and a system to collate, compile, and analyse data in real-time
    • Because individuals may transmit COVID-19 while pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic, this guidance also emphasizes the importance of quarantining contacts to further reduce the potential for secondary transmission.
    • Contact tracing may be difficult when the transmission is intense (community transmission) but should be carried out as much as possible.
    • When countries have passed the peak of transmission and case numbers are decreasing, and particularly when stringent public health and social measures are being adjusted, rapid identification of cases and contact tracing are critical to maintain low levels of transmission and rapidly identify and break new transmission chains.

11 May (4,066,883 cases)[edit]

12 May (4,137,915 cases)[edit]

13 May (4,223,701 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC Publishes a 3rd update of the Technical Report "Infection prevention and control and preparedness for COVID-19 in healthcare settings - third update" [55]

14 May (4,309,652 cases)[edit]

15 May (4,406,317 cases)[edit]

  • ECDC published a Rapid Risk Assessment: Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.[56]
    • Rare disease: symptoms are a mix of the ones for Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and are characterised, among others, by fever, abdominal pain and cardiac involvement.
    • In total, about 230 suspected cases of this new paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS) have been reported in EU/EEA countries and the UK in 2020, including two fatalities, one in the UK and one in France. Investigation is ongoing.

16 May (4,504,351 cases)[edit]

17 May (4,598,546 cases)[edit]

18 May (4,679,511 cases)[edit]

19 May ()[edit]

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  2. The first COVID-19 case originated on November 17, according to Chinese officials searching for 'Patient Zero'. Business Insider. Isaac Scher 3/13/2020.
  3. Davidson, Helen (13 March 2020).|First Covid-19 case happened in November, China government records show – report. The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
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